Content: All written material in this guide was derived from the Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts website (mmfa.org), Tori Jackson- Member of the Mvskoke people and Vice President of the Alabama Indigenous Coalition, the Encyclopedia of Alabama (encyclopediaofalabama.org) and the Poarch Band of Creek Indians official website (pci-nsn.gov). The Creek folktale was adapted from the United Cherokee archive of North America/ Southeast Area tribal folktales and legends (firstpeople.us).
Alabama State Curriculum Standards
This resource was designed to meet the fourth grade Alabama Course of Study standards for English language arts and social studies. It is meant to be a supplemental tool for classroom teachers to use when teaching units on Native American history, Alabama history, and United States history.
Alabama Course of Study - English Language Arts, Fourth Grade
R1. Utilize active listening skills during discussion and conversation in pairs, small groups, or whole-class settings, following agreed-upon rules for participation.
R2. Use context clues to determine meanings of unfamiliar spoken or written words.
R3. Use digital and electronic tools appropriately, safely, and ethically when researching and writing, both individually and collaboratively.
R4. Utilize a writing process to plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish writings in various genres.
F5. Demonstrate fluency when reading grade-level text and when responding through writing or speaking.
F6. Read grade-level text orally with appropriate pauses, phrasing, stress, intonation, rate, and integration to support comprehension.
F7. Read words with irregular and regular spelling patterns accurately and automatically.
F8. Write routinely and independently in response to text.
V9. Accurately interpret general academic and domain-specific words and phrases.
V10. Interpret words and phrases, including figurative language, as they are used in a text.
a. Explain how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
b. Explain how figurative language contributes to the meaning of text, including simile, metaphor, alliteration, personification, hyperbole, and idioms.
c. Use the relationships between synonyms, antonyms, and homographs to increase understanding of word meanings.
V12. Consult reference materials to find the pronunciation of unknown words and phrases.
V13. Use grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in presentations and discussions.
C14. Demonstrate comprehension of literary and informational text by utilizing its content when discussing or writing in response to the text.
C15. Analyze in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text.
a. Identify and explain attitudes and influences of multiple characters within a text.
b. Explain how the main character changes throughout the story, using explicit evidence from the text.
c. Make an inference about a character’s behavior, the setting, and/or specific events, using explicit details from the story.
C16. Describe how authors use literary devices and text features to convey meaning in prose, poetry, and drama.
a. Identify clues in the text to recognize implicit meanings.
b. Apply prior knowledge to textual clues to draw conclusions about the author’s meaning
c. Make an inference about the meaning of a text and support it with textual evidence.
C17. Identify the narrator’s point of view in a literary text and explain how it differs from a character’s perspective.
a. Explain the difference between first person and third person narration, including omniscient and third person limited.
b. State an opinion of the author’s use of narration, supporting reasoning with examples from the text.
C18. Identify the point of view in a narrative and describe how the narrative would be different if told from the perspective of a different character or narrator.
a. Compare and contrast firsthand and secondhand accounts of the same event or topic, describing the differences in focus and the information provided.
b. Compare the perspectives of different characters within a text.
C19. Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures.
a. Determine and state an implied theme, explicit theme, or life lesson from a myth, story, or other traditional literature.
b. Analyze a common or shared theme and its development in stories, myths, and/or other traditional literature.
C20. Use details and examples from a text to indicate what the text explicitly states.
a. Interpret facts from an informational article, using details and examples from the text to explain the interpretation.
b. List the main questions answered by an informational article.
c. Categorize statements in an article or other informational text as fact or opinion and give reasons for each choice.
d. Explain the differences between primary and secondary sources, giving examples from texts.
C21. Explain how relevant details support the implied or explicit main idea of a text.
a. Determine the central idea or theme of a text.
b. Explain the difference between implied and explicit details.
c. Summarize the key supporting details by citing evidence from a text.
C24. Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points and claims in an informational text or argument.
a. Make text-based inferences to determine possible reasons for an author’s stance.
C28. Write clear and coherent responses to texts, using explicit or implicit evidence that supports a particular point.
C31. Orally paraphrase portions of a text or information presented in diverse media when collaborating and/or presenting. Writing
C32. Respond in writing to literature and informational text, including stories, dramas, poetry, and cross-curricular texts, both independently and with support, demonstrating grade-level proficiency
C34. Write fluently and legibly in cursive, using correctly formed letters with appropriate spacing.
C37. Write an argument to persuade the reader to take an action or adopt a position, using an introduction, logical reasoning supported by evidence from relevant sources, and linking words to connect their argument to the evidence.
Alabama Course of Study - Social Science, Fourth Grade
2. Relate reasons for European exploration and settlement in Alabama to the impact of European explorers on trade, health, and land expansion in Alabama.
- Explaining reasons for conflicts between Europeans and American Indians in Alabama from 1519 to 1840, including differing beliefs regarding land ownership, religion, and culture
3. Explain the social, political, and economic impact of the War of 1812, including battles and significant leaders of the Creek War, on Alabama.
- Explaining the impact of the Trail of Tears on Alabama American Indians’ lives, rights, and territories.
4. Relate the relationship of the five geographic regions of Alabama to the movement of Alabama settlers during the early nineteenth century.
- Identifying natural resources of Alabama during the early nineteenth century
- Describing human environments of Alabama as they relate to settlement during the early nineteenth century, including housing, roads, and place names.
5. Describe Alabama’s entry into statehood and establishment of its three branches of government and the constitutions.